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丘吉尔演讲英文赏析

时间:2016-05-07来源:海达范文网

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篇一:丘吉尔演讲赏析(全英文)

When it comes to the language features and the great sentences of Churchill’s speech, I have a lot of things to say.

First, great sentences. In fact, one of the most special feature is comparison. Churchill use a lot of comparisons in this article to emphasize his main thought and make his speech more infectious. Such as the situations 10 months ago and now, the normal people and the British, and so on. Then, quotation. He quote Kipling's words "meet with Triumph and Disaster. And treat those two impostors just the same." He use this brief sentence to expound and emphasize his own ideal, “Try to be brave when you face everything and never give in. ”Finally, repetition. The best example is the title and topic sentence,” Never give in, never give in ,never ,never, never.” He use a series of “Never” to express his feeling and appeal everyone to keep this faith.

Second, suitable diction. Churchill use a lot of thought-provoking and motivational words to make people begun to think deeply and achieve his goal of encouragement. For example, he use, “ups and downs” to describe the situation of the enemy. Why? He want to let people know the difficulties they have to face and encourage them to be more brave.

Third, clear structure. The structure of this speech is clear. Churchill use the first

paragraph to explain his purpose of coming here. Then, in next four paragraph, he told us the strict situation 10months ago, and compared it with today's situation. Finally, in

paragraph six to eight. He appealed people." Do not let us speak of darker days: let us speak rather of sterner days. "

In this speech, my favorite paragraph is," Never give in, never give in, never, never, never, never-in nothing, great or small, large or petty - never give in except to convictions of honor and good sense. Never yield to force; never yield to the apparently overwhelming might of the enemy. "

There are some reasons. First, it is the thesis sentence of the whole speech and it reveals Churchill's goal to give this speech. Second, it has great inflammatory .When I read this paragraph I feel very excited and anxious. I feel as if my blood have burned. Third, these sentences show us a kind of spirit which make people become afraid nothing and do their best.

篇二:丘吉尔演讲英文原文

英文原文

Blood, Sweat And Tears

Winston Churchill May 13, 1940

On Friday evening last I received from His Majesty the mission to form a new administration.

It was the evident will of Parliament and the nation that this should be conceived on the broadest possible basis and that it should include all parties.

I have already completed the most important part of this task. A war cabinet has been formed of five members, representing, with the Labor, Opposition and Liberals, the unity of the nation.

It was necessary that this should be done in one single day on account of the extreme urgency and rigor of events. Other key positions were filled yesterday. I am submitting a further list to the King tonight. I hope to complete the appointment of principal Ministers during tomorrow.

The appointment of other Ministers usually takes a little longer. I trust when Parliament meets again this part of my task will be completed and that the administration will be complete in all respects.

I considered it in the public interest to suggest to the Speaker that the House should be summoned today. At the end of today's

proceedings, the adjournment of the House will be proposed until May 2l with provision for earlier meeting if need be. Business for that will be notified to M. P. 's at the earliest opportunity.

I now invite the House by a resolution to record its approval of the steps taken and declare its confidence in the new government. The resolution

That this House welcomes the formation of a government representing the united and inflexible resolve of the nation to prosecute the war with Germany to a victorious conclusion.

To form an administration of this scale and complexity is a serious undertaking in itself. But we are in the preliminary Phase of one of the greatest battles in history. We are in action at any other

points-in Norway and in Holland-and we have to be prepared in the Mediterranean. The air battle is continuing, and many preparations have to be made here at home.

In this crisis I think I may be pardoned if I do not address the House at any length today, and I hope that any of my friends and

colleagues or for mer colleagues who are affected by the political reconstruction will make all allowances for any lack of ceremony with which it has been necessary to act.

I say to the House as I said to Ministers who have joined this

government, I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat.

We have before us an ordeal of the most grievous kind. We have before us many, many months of struggle and suffering.

You ask, what is our policy I say it is to wage war by land, sea and air. War with all our might and with all the strength God has given us, and to wage war against a monstrous tyranny never surpassed in the dark and lamentable catalogue of human crime. That is our policy.

You ask, what is our aim I can answer in one word, It is victory. Victory at all costs-victory in spite of all terrors-victory, however long and hard the road may be, for without victory there is no survival.

Let that be realized. No survival for the British Empire, no survival for all that the British Empire has stood for, no survival for the urge, the impulse of the ages, that mankind shall move forward toward his goal.

I take up my task in buoyancy and hope. I feel sure that our cause will not be suffered to fail among men.

I feel entitled at this juncture, at this time, to claim the aid of all and to say, Come then, let us go forward together with our united strength.

这是丘吉尔1940年5月13日在下院发表的首相就职演讲,内容大概如下:

“我所能奉贤的,只有热血和辛劳,眼泪和汗水。

你们问:我们的政策是什么?我说,我们的政策就是用上帝所给予我们的全部能力和全部力量,在海上.陆地上和空中进行战争。同一个邪恶悲惨的人类罪恶史上从为见过的穷凶极恶的暴政进行战争。 你们问:我们的目的是什么?我可以用一个词来答复:胜利————不惜一切代价去争取胜利,无论多么恐怖也要去争取胜利;无论道路多么遥远和艰难,也要去争取胜利;因为没有胜利,就不能生存。 在这个时候,我觉得我有权要求大家的支持,我说:起来,让我们联合起来,共同前进!”

热血、辛劳、眼泪和汗水

(1940.5.13)

丘吉尔

星期五晚上,我接受了英王陛下的委托,组织新政府。这次组阁,应包括所有的政党,既有支持上届政府的政党,也有上届政府的反对党,显而易见,这是议会和国家的希望与意愿。我已完成了此项任务中最重要的部分。战时内阁业已成立,由5位阁员组成,其中包括反对党的自由主义者,代表了举国一致的团结。三党领袖已经同意加入战时内阁,或者担任国家高级行政职务。三军指挥机构已加以充实。由于事态发展的极端紧迫感和严重性,仅仅用一天时间完成此项任务,是完全必要的。其他许多重要职位已在昨天任命。我将在今天晚上向英王陛下呈递补充名单,并希望于明日一天完成对政府主要大臣的任命。其他一些大臣的任命,虽然通常需要更多一点的时间,但是,我

相信会议再次开会时,我的这项任务将告完成,而且本届政府在各方面都将是完整无缺的。

我认为,向下院建议在今天开会是符合公众利益的。议长先生同意这个建议,并根据下院决议所授予他的权力,采取了必要的步骤。今天议程结束时,建议下院休会到5月21日星期二。当然,还要附加规定,如果需要的话,可以提前复会。下周会议所要考虑的议题,将尽早通知全体议员。现在,我请求下院,根据以我的名义提出的决议案,批推已采取的各项步骤,将它记录在案,并宣布对新政府的信任。

组成一届具有这种规模和复杂性的政府,本身就是一项严肃的任务。但是大家一定要记住,我们正处在历史上一次最伟大的战争的初期阶段,我们正在挪威和荷兰的许多地方进行战斗,我们必须在地中海地区做好准备,空战仍在继续,众多的战备工作必须在国内完成。在这危急存亡之际,如果我今天没有向下院做长篇演说,我希望能够得到你们的宽恕。我还希望,因为这次政府改组而受到影响的任何朋友和同事,或者以前的同事,会对礼节上的不周之处予以充分谅解,这种礼节上的欠缺,到目前为止是在所难免的。正如我曾对参加本届政府的成员所说的那样,我要向下院说:“我没什么可以奉献,有的.只是热血、辛劳、眼泪和汗水。”

摆在我们面前的,是一场极为痛苦的严峻的考验。在我们面前,有许多许多漫长的斗争和苦难的岁月。你们问:我们的政策是什么我要说,我们的政策就是用我们全部能力,用上帝所给予我们的全部力量,在

篇三:丘吉尔英语演讲稿:就职演说(中英对照)

1940年5月8日,由于前首相张伯伦遭到不信任质疑动议,被迫辞职。5月10日下午6时,国王召见丘吉尔,令其组阁;一小时后丘吉尔会见工党领袖艾德礼,邀请工党加入内阁并获得支持。3天后丘吉尔首次以首相身份出席下议院会议,发表了著名的讲话:“我没有别的,只有热血、辛劳、眼泪和汗水献给大家……你们问:我们的目的是什么?我可以用一个词来答复:胜利,不惜一切代价去争取胜利,无论多么恐怖也要争取胜利,无论道路多么遥远艰难,也要争取胜利,因为没有胜利就无法生存。”下议院最终以381票对0票的绝对优势表明了对丘吉尔政府的支持。

正文:

On Friday evening last I received from His Majesty the mission to form a new administration.

上星期五晚上,我奉陛下之命,组织新的一届政府。

It was the evident will of Parliament and the nation that this should be conceived on the broadest possible basis and that it should include all parties.

按国会和国民的意愿,新政府显然应该考虑建立在尽可能广泛的基础上,应该兼容所有的党派。

I have already completed the most important part of this task. A war cabinet has been formed of five members, representing, with the Labor, Opposition and Liberals, the unity of the nation.

我已经完成了这项任务的最主要的部分。战时内阁已由五人组成,包括工党、反对党和自由党,这体现了举国团结一致。

It was necessary that this should be done in one single day on account of the extreme urgency and rigor of events. Other key positions were filled yesterday. I am submitting a further list to the King tonight. I hope to complete the appointment of principal Ministers during tomorrow.

由于事态的极端紧急和严峻,新阁政府须于一天之内组成,其他的关键岗位也于昨日安排就绪。今晚还要向国王呈报一份名单。我希望明天就能完成几位主要大臣的任命。

The appointment of other Ministers usually takes a little longer. I trust when Parliament meets again this part of my task will be completed and that the administration will be complete in all respects.

其余大臣们的任命照例得晚一些。我相信,在国会下一次召开时,任命将告完成,臻于完善。

I considered it in the public interest to suggest to the Speaker that the House should be summoned today. At the end of today''s proceedings, the adjournment of the House will be proposed until May 2l with provision for earlier meeting if need be. Business for that will be notified to M. P. ''s at the earliest opportunity.

为公众利益着想,我建议议长今天就召开国会。今天的议程结束时,建议休会到5月21日,并准备在必要时提前开会。有关事项当会及早通知各位议员。

I now invite the House by a resolution to record its approval of the steps taken and declare its confidence in the new government. The resolution:

现在我请求国会作出决议,批准我所采取的各项步骤,启示记录在案,并且声明信任新政府。决议如下:

"That this House welcomes the formation of a government representing the united and inflexible resolve of the nation to prosecute the war with Germany to a victorious conclusion."

“本国会欢迎新政府的组成,她体现了举国一致的坚定不移的决心:对德作战,直到最后胜利。”

To form an administration of this scale and complexity is a serious undertaking in itself. But we are in the preliminary Phase of one of the greatest battles in history. We are in action at any other points-in Norway and in Holland-and we have to be prepared in the Mediterranean. The air battle is continuing, and many preparations have to be made here at home.

组织如此规模和如此复杂的政府原本是一项重大的任务。但是我们正处于历史上罕见的一场大战的初始阶段。我们在其他许多地点作战--在挪威,在荷兰,我们还必须在地中海做好准备。空战正在继续,而且在本土也必须做好许多准备工作。

In this crisis I think I may be pardoned if I do not address the House at any length today, and I hope that any of my friends and colleagues or for mer colleagues who are affected by the political reconstruction will make all allowances for any lack of ceremony with which it has been necessary to act.

值此危急关头,我想,即使我今天向国会的报告过于简略,也当能见谅。我还希望所有在这次改组中受到影响的朋友、同僚和旧日的同僚们对必要的礼仪方面的任何不周之处能毫不介意。

I say to the House as I said to Ministers who have joined this government, I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat. We have before us an ordeal of the most grievous kind. We have before us many, many months of struggle and suffering.

我向国会表明,一如我向入阁的大臣们所表明的,我所能奉献的唯有热血、辛劳、眼泪和汗水我们所面临的将是一场极其严酷的考验,将是旷日持久的斗争和苦难。

You ask, what is our policy? I say it is to wage(作战) war by land, sea and air. War with all our might and with all the strength God has given us, and to wage war against a monstrous tyranny never surpassed in the dark and lamentable catalogue of human crime. That is our policy.

若问我们的政策是什么?我的回答是:在陆上、海上、空中作战。尽我们的全力,尽上帝赋予我们的全部力量去作战,对人类黑暗、可悲的罪恶史上空前凶残的暴政作战。这就是我们的政策。

You ask, what is our aim? I can answer in one word, It is victory. Victory at all costs-victory in spite of all terrors-victory, however long and hard the road may be, for without victory there is no survival.

若问我们的目标是什么?我可以用一个词来回答,那就是胜利。不惜一切代价,去夺取胜利--不惧一切恐怖,去夺取胜利--不论前路如何漫长、如何艰苦,去夺取胜利。因为没有胜利就不能生存。

Let that be realized. No survival for the British Empire, no survival for all that the British Empire has stood for, no survival for the urge, the impulse of the ages, that mankind shall move forward toward his goal.

我们务必认识到,没有胜利就不复有大英帝国,没有胜利就不复有大英帝国所象征的一切,没有胜利就不复有多少世纪以来的强烈要求和冲动:人类应当向自己的目标迈进。

I take up my task in buoyancy and hope. I feel sure that our cause will not be suffered to fail among men.

我精神振奋、满怀信心地承担起我的任务。我确信,大家联合起来,我们的事业就不会遭到挫败。

I feel entitled at this juncture, at this time, to claim the aid of all and to say, "Come then, let us go forward together with our united strength."

在此时此刻的危急关头,我觉得我有权要求各方面的支持。我要说:“来吧,让我们群策群力,并肩前进!”

篇四:温斯顿.丘吉尔的著名演讲

Blood, Sweat and Tears

Winston Churchill

May 13, 1940

On Friday evening last I received from His Majesty the mission to form a new administration.

It was the evident will of Parliament and the nation that this should be conceived on the broadest possible basis and that it should include all parties.

I have already completed the most important part of this task. A war cabinet has been formed of five members, representing, with the Labor, Opposition and Liberals, the unity of the nation.

It was necessary that this should be done in one single day on account of the extreme urgency and rigor of events. Other key positions were filled yesterday. I am submitting a further list to the King tonight. I hope to complete the appointment of principal Ministers during tomorrow.

The appointment of other Ministers usually takes a little longer. I trust when Parliament meets again this part of my task will be completed and that the administration will be complete in all respects.

I considered it in the public interest to suggest to the Speaker that the House should be summoned today. At the end of today's proceedings, the adjournment of the House will be proposed until May 2l with provision for earlier meeting if need be. Business for that will be notified to M. P. 's at the earliest opportunity.

I now invite the House by a resolution to record its approval of the steps taken and declare its confidence in the new government. The resolution:

"That this House welcomes the formation of a government representing the united and inflexible resolve of the nation to prosecute the war with Germany to a victorious conclusion."

To form an administration of this scale and complexity is a serious undertaking in itself. But we are in the preliminary Phase of one of the greatest battles in history. We are in action at any other points-in Norway and in Holland-and we have to be prepared in the Mediterranean. The air battle is continuing, and many preparations have to be made here at home.

In this crisis I think I may be pardoned if I do not address the House at any length today, and I hope that any of my friends and colleagues or for mer colleagues who are affected by the political reconstruction will make all allowances for any lack of ceremony with which it has been necessary to act.

I say to the House as I said to Ministers who have joined this government, I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat. We have before us an ordeal of the most grievous kind. We have before us many, many months of struggle and suffering.

You ask, what is our policy? I say it is to wage war by land, sea and air. War with all our might and with all the strength God has given us, and to wage war against a monstrous tyranny never surpassed in the dark and lamentable catalogue of human crime. That is our policy.

You ask, what is our aim? I can answer in one word, It is victory. Victory at all

costs-victory in spite of all terrors-victory, however long and hard the road may be, for without victory there is no survival.

Let that be realized. No survival for the British Empire, no survival for all that the British Empire has stood for, no survival for the urge, the impulse of the ages, that mankind shall move forward toward his goal.

I take up my task in buoyancy and hope. I feel sure that our cause will not be suffered to fail among men.

I feel entitled at this juncture, at this time, to claim the aid of all and to say, "Come then, let us go forward together with our united strength."

"热血、汗水和眼泪"

温斯顿·丘吉尔

1940年5月13日

上星期五晚上,我奉陛下之命,组织新的一届政府。

按国会和国民的意愿,新政府显然应该考虑建立在尽可能广泛的基础上,应该兼容所有的党派。 我已经完成了这项任务的最主要的部分。战时内阁已由五人组成,包括工党、反对党和自由党,这体现了举国团结一致。

由于事态的极端紧急和严峻,新阁政府须于一天之内组成,其他的关键岗位也于昨日安排就绪。今晚还要向国王呈报一份名单。我希望明天就能完成几位主要大臣的任命。

其余大臣们的任命照例得晚一些。我相信,在国会下一次召开时,任命将告完成,臻于完善。 为公众利益着想,我建议议长今天就召开国会。今天的议程结束时,建议休会到5月21日,并准备在必要时提前开会。有关事项当会及早通知各位议员。

现在我请求国会作出决议,批准我所采取的各项步骤,启示记录在案,并且声明信任新政府。决议如下:

"本国会欢迎新政府的组成,她体现了举国一致的坚定不移的决心:对德作战,直到最后胜利。" 组织如此规模和如此复杂的政府原本是一项重大的任务。但是我们正处于历史上罕见的一场大战的初始阶段。我们在其他许多地点作战--在挪威,在荷兰,我们还必须在地中海做好准备。空战正在继续,而且在本土也必须做好许多准备工作。

值此危急关头,我想,即使我今天向国会的报告过于简略,也当能见谅。我还希望所有在这次改组中受到影响的朋友、同僚和旧日的同僚们对必要的礼仪方面的任何不周之处能毫不介意。

我向国会表明,一如我向入阁的大臣们所表明的,我所能奉献的唯有热血、辛劳、眼泪和汗水我们所面临的将是一场极其严酷的考验,将是旷日持久的斗争和苦难。

若问我们的政策是什么?我的回答是:在陆上、海上、空中作战。尽我们的全力,尽上帝赋予我们的全部力量去作战,对人类黑暗、可悲的罪恶史上空前凶残的暴政作战。这就是我们的政策。

若问我们的目标是什么?我可以用一个词来回答,那就是胜利。不惜一切代价,去夺取胜利--不惧一切恐怖,去夺取胜利--不论前路如何漫长、如何艰苦,去夺取胜利。因为没有胜利就不能生存。 我们务必认识到,没有胜利就不复有大英帝国,没有胜利就不复有大英帝国所象征的一切,没有胜利就不复有多少世纪以来的强烈要求和冲动:人类应当向自己的目标迈进。

我精神振奋、满怀信心地承担起我的任务。我确信,大家联合起来,我们的事业就不会遭到挫败。 在此时此刻的危急关头,我觉得我有权要求各方面的支持。我要说:"来吧,让我们群策群力,并肩前进!"

篇五:高级英丘吉尔演讲、马克吐温

1.Speech on Hitler’ Invasion of the U.S.S.R

“Behind all this glare. behind all this storm, I see that small group of villainous men who plan, organize, and launch this cataract of horrors upon mankind...

在这番刀光剑影、血雨腥风的背后,我看到了那一小撮谋划、组织并向人类发起这场恐怖战争的恶棍···

“I have to declare the decision of His Majesty’s Government—and I feel sure it is a decision in

which the great Dominions will in due course concur—for we must speak out now at once, without a day’s delay. I have to make the declaration, but can you doubt what our policy will be? We have but one aim and one single, irrevocable purpose. We are resolved to destroy Hitler and every vestige of the Nazi regime. From this nothing will turn us—nothing. We will never parley,we will never negotiate with Hitler or any of his gang. We shall fight him by land, we shall fight him by sea, we shall fight him in the air, until, with God’s help, we have rid the earth of his shadow and liberated its people from his yoke. Any man or state who fights on against Nazidom will have our aid.Any man or state who marches with Hitler is our foe...That is our policy and that is our declaration.It follows therefore that we shall give whatever help we can to Russia and the Russian people.We shall appeal to all our friends and allies in every part of the world to take the same course and pursue it,as we shall faithfully and stead-fastly to the end....

现在我必须宣布大英帝国的决定,我确信伟大的自治领地在适当时候会一致同意这个决定。然而我们必须立即宣布这项决定,一天也不能耽搁。我必须发表这项声明,难道你们会怀疑我们的政策吗?我们只有一个目标,一个唯一的,不可能变的目标,那就是一定要消灭希特勒和纳粹政权的一切痕迹。什么也不能使我们改变这个决定。什么也不能!我们决不妥协;我们决不同希特勒或他的任何党羽谈判。我们将在陆地上同他战斗,直至借上帝之力,在地球上清除他的阴影,并把地球上的人民从他的枷锁中解放出来。我们将援助任何一个同纳粹主义作战的人或者国家。我们将敌视任何一个助纣为虐的人或国家···这就是我们的政策,这就是我们的宣言。因此,我们将尽力援助(前)苏联和(前)苏联人民。我们将呼吁世界各地的朋友和盟友与我们同心协力,忠诚不渝地斗争到底···

“This is no class war, but a war in which the whole British Empire and Commonwealth of Nations is engaged, without distinction of race, creed, or party. It is not for me to speak of the action of the Soviet Russia will cause the slightest divergence of aims or slackening of effort in the great democracies who are resolved upon his doom, he is woefully mistaken. On the contrary, we shall be fortified and encouraged in our efforts to rescue mankind from his tyranny. We shall be strengthened and not weakened in determination and in resources.

这绝不是阶级战争。这是一场大英帝国和英联邦,不分种族,不分信仰,不分党派,共同参与的战争。我无权代表美国方面做任何行动宣言,但我要声明一点,如果希特勒认为他对(前)苏联的进攻会稍稍转移那些一心埋葬他的伟大的民主

国家的目标或者使他们斗志松懈的话,那么他就大错特错了。恰恰相反,我们将会更加坚定,勇敢地为将人类从他的暴政下解救出来而奋斗,我们将加强自己的决心和力量,绝不退缩。

“This is no time to moralise on the follies of countries and Governments which have allowed themselves to be struck down one by one, when by united action they could have saved the world from this catastrophe. But when I spoke a few minutes ago of Hitler’s bold-lust and the hateful appetites which have impelled or lured him on his Russian adventure. I said there was one deeper motive behind his outrage. He wishes to destroy the Russian power because he hopes that if he succeeds in this he will be able to bring back the main strength of his Army and Air Force from the East and hurl it upon this Island, which he knows he must conquer or suffer the penalty of his crimes. His invasion of Russia is no more than a prelude to an attempted invasion of the British Isles. He hops, no doubt, that all this may be accomplished before the winter comes, and that he can overwhelm Great Britain before the Fleet and air-power of the United States may intervene. He hopes that he may once again repeat, upon a greater scale than ever before, that process of destroying his enemies one by one by which he has so long thrived and prospered, and that then the scene will be clear for the final act, without which all his conquests would be in vain-namely, the subjugation of the Western Hemisphere to his will and to his system.

那些遭到德军各个击破的国家和政府,当初若是采取联合行动,原本是可以使自己和

丘吉尔演讲英文赏析

全世界免遭劫难的。当然,现在不是对他们的愚蠢行为发表评论的时候。但我在几分钟前谈到希特勒嗜血成性、欲壑难填的本性驱使并引诱他发动了对(前)苏联的贸然进攻时,我说过在他的 疯狂行为背后隐藏着一个蓄谋已久的动机。他之所以想摧毁苏联军队,是因为他期望一旦这一行动得手,他便可以将其他陆军和空军主力从东线调回,进而投入到对英国的进攻中去。他明白,他必须征服英国,否则,他将为他的罪行付出代价。希特勒侵略(前)苏联只不过是蓄谋侵略不列颠诸岛的前奏。毫无疑问,他期望在冬季到来之前完成这一切,并在美国海军和空军干涉之前击溃英国。他指望更大规模地故伎重演,各个击破。他一直以来都是凭借这种伎俩得逞的。那是,他就可以为最后行动清除障碍了,也就是说,他就要迫使西半球屈从于他的意志和制度下了,而如果做不到这一点,他的一切征服都将化为泡影。

1.Mark Twain--Mirror of America

Most Americans remember Mark Twain as the father of Huck Finn’idyllic cruise through eternal boyhood and Tom sawyer’ endless summer of freedom and adventure. Indeed, this nation’s best-loved author was every bit as adventurous, patriotic, romantic, and humorous as anyone has ever imagined .I found another Twain as well-one who grew cynical, bitter, saddened by the profound personal tragedies life dealt him, a man who became obsessed with the frailties of the human race, who saw clearly ahead a black wall of night.

在大多数美国人印象中,马克吐温是位伟大的作家,他向我们描述了哈克 贝利费恩再其永恒的童年时代充满诗情画意的旅行,还有汤姆索亚在漫长的夏日里自由自在的探险故事。的确,这位最受美国人喜爱的作家完全像人们想象的那样富有冒险精神、爱国、浪漫和幽默。但我同样发现马克吐温的另一面——一个由于饱受了人生悲剧的打击而变得愤世嫉俗、尖酸刻薄的马克吐温,一个位人类的弱点所困惑而忧心忡忡、清楚地看到前途一片黑暗的马克吐温。

Tramp printer ,river pilot, Confederate guerrilla, prospector, starry-eyed optimist, acid-tongued cynic: The man who became Mark Twain was born Samuel Langhorne Clemens and he ranged across the nation for more than a third of his life, digesting the new American experience before sharing it with the world as writer and lecturer.He adopt his pen name from the cry heard in his steamboat days,signaling two fathoms(12feet)of water—a navigable depth.His popularity is attested by the fact that more than a score of his books remain in print,and translations are still read around the world.

印刷工、领航员、南部联邦游击队员、淘金者、耽于幻想的乐观派、言辞刻薄的讽刺家——马克吐温原名叫塞缪尔 朗格合恩 克勒孟斯,他用一生中超过三分之一的时间游历于美国各地,亲身体验美国的新生活,然后便以作家和演讲家的身份与全世界一同分享他的感受。他的笔名来自他在汽船上做工时听到的水手们测量水深时的喊声,意思是“水深两浔(12英尺)—即可以通航的信号语。在他的作品中,由二十多部至今仍在印刷发行,在世界各地其译本也被广泛阅读,这足以证明他受欢迎的程度。

The geographic core in Twain’s early years, was the great valley of the Mississippi River, main artery of transportation in the young nation’s heart. Keelboats, flatboats, and large rafts carried the first major commerce. Lumber, corn, tobacco, wheat, and furs moved downstream to the delta country, sugar, molasses, cotton, and whiskey traveled north. In the 1850’s, before the climax of westward expansion, the vast-basin drained three-quarters of the settled United States.

马克吐温青年时,美国的地理中心是密西西比河流域,而对于这个新兴国家来说,密西西比河就是其交通大动脉。运货船、平底船和大木筏运载着最初的主要商品。木材、玉米、烟草、小麦和皮毛制品顺流而下,被运送到该流域的三角洲地区,砂糖、糖蜜、棉花和威士忌酒则被输送到北方地区。19世纪50年代,在西部运动高潮到来之前,辽阔的密西西比河流域占当时美国已居住领土面积的四分之三。

Mark Twain's own Declaration of Independence came from another character.Six chapters into Tom Sawyer,he drags in"the juvenile pariah of the village,Hucklebeery Finn, son of the town drunkard."Fleeing a respectable life with the puritanical Widow Douglas,Huck protests to his friend,Tom Sawyer:"I've tried it,and it don't work,Tom.It ain't for me...The widder eats by a bell;she goes to bed by a bell;she gits up by a bell —everything's so awful reg'lar a body can't stand it. "

马克吐温本人的独立宣言表现在另一个人物形象上。从《汤姆?索亚历险记》第六章起,他引入了“村里的一个流浪儿,镇上酒鬼的儿子哈克贝利?费恩”。由

于不习惯在清教徒道格拉斯寡妇家的体面生活,哈克逃了出来,他向他的朋友汤姆抱怨到:“我试过了,但还是不行了;真难受啊,汤姆。我真不适合过这种日子??那寡妇要听钟声吃饭,听钟声睡觉,连起床也要听钟声—一句话,什么事都规规矩矩的,真叫人受不了。”

Nine years after Tom Sawyer sweptthe nation,Huck was given a life of his own ,in a book often considerd the best ever written about Americans.His raft flight downtheMississippi with a runaway slave presents a moving panoranla for exploration of American Society.

《汤姆?索亚历险记》风靡美国九年后,马克吐温在一部被公认为描写美国人的最为成功的作品里赋予了哈克独立的生命。哈克同一个逃亡的奴隶乘着木筏沿着密西西比河顺流而下,他们的航程。生动地展示了一幅美国社会生活的全貌。